Traditionally the evaporator heated by direct steam can be arranged as single or multiple-effect. Often live steam is used but also waste heat (e.g. drier vapor) can be used as energy source.
The operating costs of an evaporation plant are largely determined by the energy that is required to achieve a certain evaporation, rate.
Under steady state conditions there must be a balance between the energy entering and leaving the system and a simple relationship results: the sum of all energy and enthalpy inputs = the sum of all energy and enthalpy outputs.
The arrangement of the evaporation plant, the number of effects, the use of steam or waste energy or the number of preheaters are factors which are evaluated during the design phase of a custom tailor-made system in order to optimize the energy usage in the system.
The energy costs of an evaporator can be significantly reduced by using drier vapor for heating.
The energy costs of an evaporator can be significantly reduced by using waste heat resources like hot water.
In case of multiple-effect evaporation plants, the exhaust vapor from the product are used to heat the downstream-arranged evaporation effect so that the steam consumption will be reduced accordingly.
Evaporation plants heated by mechanical vapor recompressors (MVR) require particularly low amount of energy.
The use of a thermal vapor recompressor (TVR) gives the same steam/energy saving as an additional evaporation effect.
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