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References

1. Schlünder,E.U.:Dissertation Techn.Hochschule Darmstadt D 17, 1962.

2. Masters, K.: Spray Drying. An introduction to principles, operational practice and applications. Leonard Hill Books, London, 1972.

3. King, N.: Dairy Sci.Abstr., 27, 91, 1965.

4. Snoeren, T.H.M, Damman A.J. Klok, H.J., van Mil P.J.J.M.: Effect of droplet size on the properties of spray-dried whole milk, Kyoto Int.Conf., Kyoto, 1984.

5. Snoeren, T.H.M, Damman A.J. Klok, H.J.: De invloed van de voorverhitting van de melk op enkele eigenschappen van ondermelkpoeder, NIZO-nieuws nr.12, 1982.

6. Snoeren, T.H.M, Damman A.J. Klok, H.J.: De viscositeit van ondermelk-concentrat, NIZOnieuws nr.9, 1981.

7. Snoeren, T.H.M, Damman A.J. Klok, H.J.: Het nadikken van ondermelk-concentrat, NIZOnieuws nr.11, 1981.

8. Snoeren, T.H.M, Damman A.J. Klok, H.J.: The viscosity of skim-milk concentrates,Neth.Milk & Dairy J.,36, 305-316, 1982.

9. Eilers, H.: Die Viskosität von Emulsionen hochviskoser Stoffe als Funktion der Konzentration, Kolloid-Z., 97, 313, 1941.

10. Torssel, H., Sandberg, U., Thureson, L.E.: Changes in viscosity and conductivity during concentration of milk. XII.Int.Dairy Congr.Proceedings, 2, 246, 1949.

11. Free, K.: Sweet cream viscosity. Quoted in: Physical properties of dairy products (Wood., P.W.), Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries, Hamilton New Zealand, 1982.

12. Hunziker, O.F.: Condensed milk and milk powder, La Grange, Illinois, 7.ed., 1949.

13. Gosselin, D.: Le séchage de la gouttelette de concentré, Cours de Formation à Hendecourt, 1985.

14. Iglesias, H.A., Chirife, J.: Handbook of food isotherms: Water sorption parameters for foods and food components, Academic press New York, 1982.

15. Halsey, G. J.: J.Chem.Phys. 16, 931, 1948

16. Berlin, E., Anderson, B.A., Pallansch, M.J.: J.Dairy Sci., 53, 146, 1970.

17. Písecký, J.: Water activity of milk powders, Milchwissenschaft, 47, 1, 3, 1992.

18. Waite, R., White, J.C.D.: The composition of the soluble and insoluble portions of reconstituted milk powders., J.Dairy Res. 16,3, 379, 1949.

19. Howat, G.R., Wright, N.C.: Factors affecting the solubility of milk powders, J.Dairy Res., 4, 265, 1933.

20. Wright, N.C.: Factors affecting the solubility of milk powders, J.Dairy Res., 4, 123, 1932.

21. Mol, J.J.,: The milk fat globule membrane and the solubility of whole milk powder, Neth. Milk and Dairy J., 29, 212, 1975.

22. Mol, J.J.,: De invloed die de voorverhitting van melk heeft op enkele eigenschappen van melkpoeder, NIZO-nieuws 4, 1976.

23. Westergaard, V.: Milk powder technology, Evaporation and Spray drying., Niro Atomizer, Copenhagen, 1994.

24. Buma, T.J.: A correlation between free fat content and moisture content of whole milk spray powders, Neth.Milk & Dairy J., 22, 1968.

25. Buma, T.J.: Free fat in spray-dried whole milk. 10.A final report with a physical model for free fat in spray-dried milk., Neth.Milk & Dairy J., 25, 159, 1971.

26. Wewala, A.R.: Manipulation of water activity: An important aspect of extending the shelf life of whole milk powder., NZDRI Palmerston North 1991.

27. Ruyck, H. de: Avoidance of white flecks during the manufacture of instant dried milk, Revu de l’Agriculture, 44, 4, 751, 1991.

28. Pallansch, M.: Drying of acid whey, Proceedings of Whey Products Conf., Chicago 1968.

29. Kirchmeyer, O., El-Shobery, M., Kamal, N.M.: Milcherhitzung und SH-Gruppen- Entwicklung, Milchwissenschaft 39, 12, 1984.

30. Labuza, T.P.: Sorption phenomena in foods. Food Technol. 22, , 3, 263, 1968.

31. Analytical methods for dry milk products, 4.ed., A/S Niro Atomizer, Copenhagen 1978.

32. IDF Standard 26:1964: Determination of water content of dried milk.

33. IDF Standard 129A:1988: Dried milk and dried milk products - Determination of insolubility index.

34. IDF Standard 134:1986: Dried milk and dried milk products - Determination of bulk density.

35. British Standard Method 1743:1968.

36. Analytical Methods for Dry Milk Products, American Dry Milk Institute Inc., Chicago, Ill., 1971.

37. IDF Standard 87:1979: Determination of the dispersibility and wettability of instant dried milk.

38. IDF Standard 123A:1988: Milk-based instant foods - Determination of fat content - Röse-Gottlieb method.

39. IDF Standard 86:1978: Drier milk - Determination of titratable acidity.

40. Písecký, J.: Příčiny explose sušeného mléka (Causes of explosions in dried milk), Průmysl potravin 19, 7, 1, 1968.

41. Sapryngin, G.,Kiselejev,J.A.:Inflammation spontanée du lait en poudre, La technique laitière, XI, 537, 15-18, 1966.

42. VDI 3673: Richtlinien fur Druckentlastung von Staubexplosionen. Verein Deutscher Ingenieure, Dusseldorf, 1979.

43. Asssociation of British Preserved Milk Manufacturers: Prevention of fire and explosion in spray drying plant., London ABPMM, 1987.

44. IDF Bulletin no.219/1987: Recommendations for fire prevention in spray drying of milk powder.

45. IDF Document 123-1980.

46. IDF Document 178-1984.

47. FAO/WHO Codex Alimentarius Commission’s Document CAC/RCP 31 1983.

48. Asssociation of British Preserved Milk Manufacturers: London 1987.

49. IDF Bulletin no.267/1991: Recommendations for the hygienic manufacture ofspray dried milk powders.

50. Písecký, J.: Computerized logsheet keeping and trouble shooting,J.Soc.Dairy Technol. 46, 4, 1993.

51. Refstrup, E.:Begrænsning af støvemission fra spraytørringsanlæg,Mælkeritidende, 6, 138, 1991.

52. Schrøder-Hansen, E.:Anwendung der Membranfiltration in der Milchindustrie, Deutsche Molkerei Zeitung, 113. 39, 1992.

53. Steenbergen, A. E., Houwelingen, G. Van, Straatsma, J.: System for early detection of fire in a spray drier. Journal of the Society of Dairy Technology (1991), 44, (3), 76-79 (En, 5 ref.), NIZO (Netherlands Institute for Dairy Research).

54. Warburton, S., Pixton, S.W.: The moisture relations of spray dried skimmed milk, J.stored Prod.Res., 14, 143.

55. Písecký, J.:Milk droplets: Their creation and drying. World Galaxy, 5, November 1974.

56. Vuataz, G.: The phase diagram of milk: a new tool for optimising the drying process. Lait, 82, 495, 2002.

57. Thomsen, M.K., L. Jespersen, K. Sjøstrøm, J. Risbo, L. H. Skibsted. Water activity – Temperature state diagram of amorphous lactose. J. Agric. Food Chem., 53, 9182, 2005

58. Thomsen, M.K., L. Lauridsen, L. H. Skibsted, J. Risbo. Temperature effect on lactose crystallization, Maillard reactions, and lipid oxidation in whole milk powder. J. Agric. Food Chem., 53, 7082, 2005

Table of contents

  1. 1.Introduction
  2. 2.Evaporation
    1. 2.1. Basic principles
    2. 2.2. Main components of the evaporator
    3. 2.2.1. Heat exchanger for preheating
    4. 2.2.1.1. Spiral-tube preheaters
    5. 2.2.1.2. Straight-tube preheaters
    6. 2.2.1.3. Preheaters to prevent growth of spore forming bacteria
    7. 2.2.1.3.1. Direct contact regenerative preheaters
    8. 2.2.1.3.2. Duplex preheating system
    9. 2.2.1.3.3. Preheating by direct steam injection
    10. 2.2.1.4. Other means to solve presence of spore forming bacteria
    11. 2.2.1.4.1. Mid-run cleaning
    12. 2.2.1.4.2. UHT treatment
    13. 2.2.2. Pasteurizing system including holding
    14. 2.2.2.1. Indirect pasteurization
    15. 2.2.2.2. Direct pasteurization
    16. 2.2.2.3. Holding tubes
    17. 2.2.3. Product distribution system
    18. 2.2.3.1. Dynamic distribution system
    19. 2.2.3.2. Static distribution system
    20. 2.2.4. Calandria(s) with boiling tubes
    21. 2.2.5. Separator
    22. 2.2.5.1. Separators with tangential vapour inlet
    23. 2.2.5.2. Wrap-around separator
    24. 2.2.6. Vapour recompression systems
    25. 2.2.6.1. Thermal Vapour Recompression – TVR
    26. 2.2.6.2. Mechanical Vapour Recompression - MVR
    27. 2.2.7. Condensation equipment
    28. 2.2.7.1. Mixing condenser
    29. 2.2.7.2. Surface condenser
    30. 2.2.8. Vacuum equipment
    31. 2.2.8.1. Vacuum pump
    32. 2.2.8.2. Steam jet vacuum unit
    33. 2.2.9. Flash coolers
    34. 2.2.10. Sealing water equipment
    35. 2.2.11. Cooling towers
    36. 2.3. Evaporator design parameters
    37. 2.3.1. Determination of heating surface
    38. 2.3.2. Heat transfer coefficient
    39. 2.3.3. Coverage coefficient
    40. 2.3.4. Boiling temperature
    41. 2.4. Evaporation parameters and its influrence on powder properties
    42. 2.4.1. Effect of pasteurization
    43. 2.4.1.1. Bacteriological requirements
    44. 2.4.1.2. Functional properties of dried products
    45. 2.4.1.2.1. Heat classified skim milk powders
    46. 2.4.1.2.2. High-Heat Heat-Stable milk powders
    47. 2.4.1.2.3. Keeping quality of whole milk powders
    48. 2.4.1.2.4. Coffee stability of whole milk powders
    49. 2.4.2. Concentrate properties
  3. 3.Fundamentals of spray drying
    1. 3.1. Principle and terms
    2. 3.1.1. Drying air characteristics
    3. 3.1.2. Terms and definitions
    4. 3.1.3. Psychrometric chart
    5. 3.2. Drying of milk droplets
    6. 3.2.1. Particle size distribution
    7. 3.2.2. Mean particle size
    8. 3.2.3. Droplet temperature and rate of drying
    9. 3.2.4. Particle volume and incorporation of air
    10. 3.3. Single-stage drying
    11. 3.4. Two-stage drying
    12. 3.5. Expansion of air bubbles during drying
    13. 3.6. Extended Two-stage drying
    14. 3.7. Fluid bed drying
  4. 4.Components of a spray drying installation
    1. 4.1. Drying chamber
    2. 4.2. Hot air supply system
    3. 4.2.1. Air supply fan
    4. 4.2.2. Air filters
    5. 4.2.3. Air heater
    6. 4.2.3.1. Indirect: Gas / Electricity
    7. 4.2.3.2. Direct heater
    8. 4.2.4. Air dispersers
    9. 4.3. Feed supply system
    10. 4.3.1. Feed tank
    11. 4.3.2. Feed pump
    12. 4.4. Concentrate heater
    13. 4.4.1. Filter
    14. 4.4.2. Homogenizer/High-pressure pump
    15. 4.4.3. Feed line
    16. 4.5. Atomizing device
    17. 4.5.1. Rotary wheel atomizer
    18. 4.5.2. Pressure nozzle atomizer
    19. 4.5.3. Two-fluid nozzle atomizer
    20. 4.6. Powder recovery system
    21. 4.6.1. Cyclone separator
    22. 4.6.2. Bag filter
    23. 4.6.3. Wet scrubber
    24. 4.6.4. Combinations
    25. 4.7. Fines return system
    26. 4.7.1. For wheel atomizer
    27. 4.7.2. For pressure nozzles
    28. 4.8. Powder after-treatment system
    29. 4.8.1. Pneumatic conveying system
    30. 4.8.2. Fluid bed system
    31. 4.8.3. Lecithin treatment system
    32. 4.8.4. Powder sieve
    33. 4.9. Final product conveying, storage and bagging-off system
    34. 4.10. Instrumentation and automation
  5. 5.Types of spray drying installations
    1. 5.1. Single stage systems
    2. 5.1.1. Spray dryers without any after-treatment system
    3. 5.1.2. Spray dryers with pneumatic conveying system
    4. 5.1.3. Spray dryers with cooling bed system
    5. 5.2. Two stage drying systems
    6. 5.2.1. Spray dryers with fluid bed after-drying systems
    7. 5.2.2. TALL FORM DRYER™
    8. 5.2.3. Spray dryers with Integrated Fluid Bed
    9. 5.3. Three stage drying systems
    10. 5.3.1. COMPACT DRYER™ type CDI (GEA Niro)
    11. 5.3.2. Multi Stage Dryer MSD™ type
    12. 5.3.3. Spray drying plant with Integrated Filters and Fluid Beds - IFD™
    13. 5.3.4. Multi Stage Dryer MSD™-PF
    14. 5.3.5. FILTERMAT™ (FMD) integrated belt dryer
    15. 5.4. Spray dryer with after-crystallization belt
    16. 5.5. TIXOTHERM™
    17. 5.6. Choosing a spray drying installation
  6. 6.Technical calculations
    1. 6.1. Evaporation and product output
    2. 6.2. Heating of atmospheric air
    3. 6.3. Mixing of two air stream
    4. 6.4. Dry air rate, water vapour rate and air density
    5. 6.5. Air velocity in ducts
    6. 6.6. Air flow measurements
    7. 6.7. Barometric distribution law
    8. 6.8. The heat balance of a spray dryer
  7. 7.Principles of industrial production
    1. 7.1. Commissioning of a new plant
    2. 7.2. Causes for trouble-shooting
    3. 7.3. Production documentation
    4. 7.3.1. Production log sheets
    5. 7.3.2. General maintenance log book
    6. 7.3.3. Product quality specification
    7. 7.3.4. Operational parameter specification
    8. 7.4. Product quality control
    9. 7.4.1. Process quality control
    10. 7.4.2. Final quality control
  8. 8.Dried milk products
    1. 8.1. Regular milk powders
    2. 8.1.1. Regular skim milk powder
    3. 8.1.2. Regular whole milk powder
    4. 8.1.3. Whole milk powder with high free fat content
    5. 8.1.4. Butter milk powder
    6. 8.1.4.1. Sweet butter milk powder
    7. 8.1.4.2. Acid butter milk powder
    8. 8.1.5. Fat filled milk powder
    9. 8.2. Agglomerated milk powders
    10. 8.2.1. Agglomerated skim milk powder
    11. 8.2.2. Agglomerated whole milk powder
    12. 8.2.3. Instant whole milk powder
    13. 8.2.4. Agglomerated fat filled milk powder
    14. 8.2.5. Instant fat filled milk powder
    15. 8.3. Whey and whey related products
    16. 8.3.1. Ordinary sweet whey powder
    17. 8.3.2. Ordinary acid whey powder
    18. 8.3.3. Non-caking sweet whey powder
    19. 8.3.4. Non-caking acid whey powder
    20. 8.3.5. Fat filled whey powder
    21. 8.3.6. Hydrolysed whey powder
    22. 8.3.7. Whey protein powder
    23. 8.3.8. Permeate powders
    24. 8.3.9. Mother liquor
    25. 8.4. Other Dried Milk Products
    26. 8.5. Baby food
    27. 8.6. Caseinate powder
    28. 8.6.1. Coffee whitener
    29. 8.6.2. Cocoa-milk-sugar powder
    30. 8.6.3. Cheese powder
    31. 8.6.4. Butter powder
  9. 9.The composition and properties of milk
    1. 9.1. Raw milk quality
    2. 9.2. Milk composition
    3. 9.3. Components of milk solids
    4. 9.3.1. Milk proteins
    5. 9.3.2. Milk fat
    6. 9.3.3. Milk sugar
    7. 9.3.4. Minerals of milk
    8. 9.4. Physical properties of milk
    9. 9.4.1. Viscosity
    10. 9.4.2. Density
    11. 9.4.3. Boiling point
    12. 9.4.4. Acidity
    13. 9.4.5. Redox potential
    14. 9.4.6. Crystallization of lactose
    15. 9.4.7. Water activity
    16. 9.4.8. Stickiness and glass transition
  10. 10.Achieving product properties
    1. 10.1. Moisture content
    2. 10.2. Insolubility index
    3. 10.3. Bulk density, particle density, occluded air
    4. 10.4. Agglomeration
    5. 10.5. Flowability
    6. 10.6. Free fat content
    7. 10.7. Instant properties
    8. 10.7.1. Wettability
    9. 10.7.2. Dispersibility
    10. 10.7.3. Sludge
    11. 10.7.4. Heat stability
    12. 10.7.5. Slowly dispersible particles
    13. 10.7.6. Hot water test and coffee test
    14. 10.7.7. White Flecks Number (WFN)
    15. 10.8. Hygroscopicity, sticking and caking properties
    16. 10.9. Whey Protein Nitrogen Index (WPNI)
    17. 10.10. Shelf life
  11. 11.Analytical methods
    1. 11.1. Moisture content
    2. 11.1.1. Standard oven drying method (IDF Standard No.26-1964 [32])
    3. 11.1.2. Free moisture
    4. 11.1.3. Total moisture
    5. 11.1.4. Water of crystallization
    6. 11.2. Insolubility index
    7. 11.3. Bulk density
    8. 11.4. Particle density
    9. 11.5. Scorched particles
    10. 11.6. Wettability
    11. 11.7. Dispersibility
    12. 11.8. Other methods for determination of instant properties
    13. 11.8.1. Sludge
    14. 11.8.2. Slowly dispersible particles
    15. 11.8.3. Hot water sediment
    16. 11.8.4. Coffee test
    17. 11.8.5. White flecks number
    18. 11.9. Total fat content
    19. 11.10. Free fat content
    20. 11.11. Particle size distribution
    21. 11.12. Mechanical stability
    22. 11.13. Hygroscopicity
    23. 11.14. Degree of caking
    24. 11.15. Total lactose and α-lactose content
    25. 11.16. Titratable acidity
    26. 11.17. Whey Protein Nitrogen Index (WPNI)
    27. 11.18. Flowability (GEA Niro [31])
    28. 11.19. Lecithin content
    29. 11.20. Analytical methods for milk concentrates
    30. 11.20.1. Total solids
    31. 11.20.2. Insolubility index
    32. 11.20.3. Viscosity
    33. 11.20.4. Degree of crystallization
  12. 12.Troubleshooting operations
    1. 12.1. Lack of capacity
    2. 12.2. Product quality
    3. 12.3. Deposits in the system
    4. 12.4. Fire precaution
    5. 12.5. Principles of good manufacturing practice
    6. 12.6. The use of computer for quality control and trouble-shooting
  13. References
Reference: Schlünder,E.U.:Dissertation Techn.Hochschule Darmstadt D 17, 1962.