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2.

Evaporation

2.1.

Basic principles

Evaporation is a process by which a liquid is brought to its boiling point by external heating thereby transforming the water into vapour, which escapes from the surface of the liquid. The rate of evaporation depends primarily:

  1. On the rate of heat transfer from the heating surface into the liquid
  2. On the surface area of the liquid exposed to the heating surface and
  3. On the rate of vapour removal from the surface of the liquid.

The evaporation of water from milk requires special attention because of heat sensitivity. Therefore the evaporation has to be carried out under vacuum to:

  1. Reduce the boiling point to below the temperature which would cause heat damage to the milk components, (especially proteins) and
  2. Enable multi-stage evaporation by selecting a cascade of vacuum levels.

The water contents of the most important liquid dairy products, their concentrates for spray drying and dried powders are given in Table 2.1. From these figures it is obvious that a substantial part of the water is removed by vacuum evaporation and only a fraction by spray drying and possibly fluid bed after-drying.

Product Water content %
Liquid Concentrate Powder
Whole milk 87-88 48-52 2-3
Skim milk 91-92 48-52 3-4
Sweet whey 94-95 40-60 2
Table. 2.1. Water content of main milk products

Beside these three main dairy products, others are also processed by evaporation and spray drying, like buttermilk, acid whey, permeates from ultrafiltration, mixtures of dairy liquid products with other components to produce special formulations e.g. milk formulas and icecream mixes. Therefore, whenever the expression 'milk' is used in the following text, it has to be considered as a general designation which may mean any of the other products mentioned.

There are two main reasons for using evaporation prior to spray drying:

  1. It has a positive influence on many qualitative properties of the final powder,
  2. It is a far more economical water removing process than spray drying.

Consequently, removing as much water as possible by evaporation improves the overall heat economy of the process.

Having these reasons in mind, the basic principles for the design of an evaporator are:

  1. Using a level of vacuum, which will reduce the boiling temperature to below the temperature that would cause heat damage to the milk,
  2. Providing sufficient evaporative surface for the liquid to achieve fast evaporation rates in order to reduce the exposure time to heat,
  3. Providing sufficient heating surface to achieve high rate of heat transfer,
  4. Keeping a low temperature difference between the heating surface and boiling point of the liquid, ensuring at the same time constant coverage of the surface by liquid and avoiding local overconcentration and scorching.
2.2.

Main components of the evaporator

The main components of an evaporation plant are:

  • Heat exchanger for preheating the liquid either indirect or direct
  • Pasteurizing system including holding tubes
  • Product distribution system
  • Calandria(s) with boiling tubes
  • Separator for separation of the vapour from the evaporated liquid
  • Vapour recompression systems
  • Vacuum equipment
  • Flash coolers
  • Sealing water equipment
  • Cooling towers.
2.2.1.

Heat exchanger for preheating

As the milk to be evaporated has a temperature of 5-10°C it has to be heated to the boiling temperature of the first effect in order to enable evaporation. The milk is therefore first passed through a vapour cooler/preheater, placed between the last effect’s separator and the condenser, thereby saving cooling water as well. From the vapour cooler the milk is passed through the preheating section of the last effect and then backwards to the first effect, before it enters either the pasteurization system or directly into the boiling section of the first effect. The preheating system can technically be carried out in different ways:

  • Spiral-tube preheaters
  • Straight-tube preheaters
  • Preheaters to prevent growth of spore forming bacteria
  • Direct contact regenerative preheaters
  • Duplex preheating system
  • Preheating by direct steam injection
  • Other means to solve presence of spore forming bacteria.
2.2.1.1.

Spiral-tube preheaters

Spiral-tube preheater
Fig.2.1. Spiral-tube preheater

The spiral tubes are placed inside the heating room in the calandria surrounding the falling-film tubes, thus being heated by vapour. The system is simple, but does not offer the possibility of inspection for deposits or leakage. In modern evaporators they are not used any longer. See Fig.2.1.

2.2.1.2.

Straight-tube preheaters

Straight-tube preheater
Fig.2.2. Straight-tube preheater

The straight-tube preheaters are placed vertically outside the evaporator and like the spiral tubes heated by vapour from the corresponding calandria. The vapour connection is at the top of the calandria, so that uncondensable gasses can easily be extracted. See Fig. 2.2. This ensures an optimum utilization of the heating surface of the evaporation tubes. With this system inspection and manual cleaning are possible, if in rare cases it should prove necessary. The heat transfer surface in the preheater is arranged in groups of parallel tubes with small diameter resulting in a large surface. Each group of tubes is connected by normal dairy fittings at the end. Due to the parallel flow, the holding time is very short. The viscosity of the final concentrate is therefore lower in evaporators equipped with straight-tube preheaters.

The large surface of the preheaters and the temperature level prevailing during operation (5- 65°C) offers, however, optimal growth conditions for mesophilling and thermophilie bacteria. After 14-16 h of operation a bio-film is formed on the inner surface of the preheaters, where they can form spores. Unless special attention is paid, one cannot expect a 20 hour production without increase of mesophile and thermophile bacteria and their spores during the last 4-5 hours of a 20 hour production.

The table below indicates typical growth temperatures and inactivation temperatures/time of spore forming bacteria, their vegetative cells and spores.

Spore forming Bacteria Growth temperatures (°C) Usual inactivation in milk by heat
Minimum     Optimum Maximum Vegetative cell Spore
B.Stearothermophilus 30-45 55-60 60-70 12 s 85°C  8-15 m 121°C
B. Cereus 5-20 30-37 45-48 10 s 72°C 0.5 m 121°C
B. Coagulans 15-25 35-50 55-60 20 s 72°C 3-5 m 121°C
B. Licheniformis 15 30-45 50-55 20 s 72°C 3-5 m 121°C
B. Subtilis 6-20 30-40 45-55 20 s 72°C 3-5 m 121°C
C. Botulinum 3 25-40 48 20 s 72°C 3-4 m 121°C
C. Perfringens 8-20 45 50 20 s 72°C 1-4 m 121°C
C. Tyrobutiricum  20 s 72°C 1-4 m 121°C
Table. 2.2. Growth and inactivation temperatures
2.2.1.3.

Preheaters to prevent growth of spore forming bacteria

Spore forming bacteria are bacteria which under adverse growth conditions, such as too high or too low temperature or lack of nutrition, transform themselves into a dormant state - they sporulate and become extremely heat resistant. When growth conditions become favourable again, they re-vegetate and develop.

It has been found that the development of spore forming bacteria in evaporators takes place in the preheaters, as that is the only place where bio-films are formed.

To ensure production of powder during a 20 hour operation without problems the following type of preheaters can be used:

2.2.1.3.1.

Direct contact regenerative preheaters

By using a direct contact regenerative preheater of similar design as the direct contact regenerative flash chambers (see section 2.2.2.), the heating from 5°C to 40°C and from 40°C to 70°C can be done in fractions of a second without heat surfaces where biofilms can be formed. The milk is pumped to the inlet of the direct contact preheater(s), where vapour from one of the calandrias is introduced by means of live steam through a small thermo-compressor. See Fig. 2.3.

Direct contact regenerative preheater
Fig.2.3. Direct contact regenerative preheater

By applying this technology it is possible to operate the plant for 20 hours or more without growth of mesophile and/or thermophile bacteria and their spores at reduced steam consumption.

2.2.1.3.2.

Duplex preheating system

Duplex preheaters
Fig.2.4. Duplex preheaters

By installing duplex preheaters, see fig 2.4., it is possible to have a continuous run of 20 hours, as the preheaters are cleaned before the critical level has been reached. Additional costs for cleaning and effluent treatment must be taken into account. Further, the investment is higher, but the actual direct production costs and time are not affected.

2.2.1.3.3.

Preheating by direct steam injection

As mentioned, the spore forming bacteria only develop in biofilms in the preheaters. Therefore, an obvious solution would be to by-pass the preheaters, where temperatures are between 5 and 70°C. This will, however, result in increased overall steam consumption, as direct steam injection is necessary to bring up the temperature from 5°C to the pasteurization temperature, and further the water from dilution of the condensing steam has to be evaporated again.

2.2.1.4.

Other means to solve presence of spore forming bacteria

If for some reason, one does not want to use the above described method, but still wants to operate the plant for 20 hours without problems with spore forming bacteria, the following measures can be implemented:

2.2.1.4.1.

Mid-run cleaning

If the evaporator is cleaned after 10 hours, the problem is solved, but approx. 10% of effective production time is lost, and further there are expenses for cleaning agents and waste disposal.

2.2.1.4.2.

UHT treatment

By heating the milk to 140°C in 4 sec. after the preheaters, the problem is solved, however, the dead cells are still traceable, and it will not be possible to make powders with “tailor-made” functional properties.

Further, there will be additional steam consumption, and the maximal running time is depending on the milk quality.

2.2.2.

Pasteurizing system including holding

2.2.2.1.

Indirect pasteurization

The indirect heaters are working as ordinary heat exchangers, either the plate, straight-tube or spiral-tube type. If temperatures up to 110°C are wanted, it is recommended to have two heaters, where one is in operation while the other one is being cleaned.

The advantage of the indirect heating is that the product will not be mixed with the condensating steam and neither will the product be diluted. The disadvantage is that it takes a long time for the product to be heated in the interval from 80°C to 110°C resulting in a concentrate with high viscosity. This is because the whey proteins, when unfolded, will react with each other and the k-casein. For improved efficiencies one or more regeneration systems can be incorporated.

2.2.2.2.

Direct pasteurization

The direct pasteurization is done in two different ways, either by direct steam injection, where the live steam is mixed into the milk using a Tangential Swirl Heater (TSH), see photo. It offers a controlled and short residence time with no mechanical impact, even at temperatures >120°C. It can operate 20 hours or more without intermediate cleaning. Alternatively, milk is sprayed into a steam atmosphere (infusion) at a sufficient pressure. The steam must be of good quality, i.e. for use in products for human consumption. Culinary steam boilers, where milk condensate is heated up in an indirect coil-type heater by means of live steam, can be used. The advantage of direct pasteurization is the short time it takes to reach the desired temperature.

Tangential swirl heater
Fig.2.5. Tangential swirl heater

The direct heating will further have a less pronounced effect on the denaturation of the whey proteins at the same pasteurization temperature/time.

Whey protein denaturation Thiamin loss
Direct system 35% 0.5 - 0.8%
Indirect system 65% 1.4 - 4.4%
Table. 2.3. Thiamin loss
Indirect contact regenerative pasteurizer with flash chambers
Fig.2.6. Indirect contact regenerative pasteurizer with flash chambers
Direct contact regenerative pasteurizer with flash chambers
Fig.2.7. Direct contact regenerative pasteurizer with flash chambers

As for the indirect preheating, regenerative flash chambers are used, if high pasteurizing temperatures are needed. The temperature of the milk will drop due to the evaporation, and the vapours are used for preheating prior to the pasteurizer. The regenerative flash chamber can be either indirect as shown in Fig. 2.8., or direct contact as shown in Fig. 2.9. The direct contact regenerative system is preferable for its short residence time and there is no heat contact surface, where deposits can develop.

The pasteurization temperature will of course have a direct influence on the total steam consumption, which will increase by increasing the temperature. For the same pasteurization temperature the direct pasteurization will result in higher steam consumption compared with indirect pasteurizing due to the need of evaporation of the extra water formed by the condensation. However, the additional steam used is - after flashing off - used as heating medium in the subsequent calandrias and some of the applied energy is reused.

2.2.2.3.

Holding tubes

The holding is practically always done in horizontally placed holding tubes, with specific length and diameter to give the desired holding time. There are usually several tubes of the same length but with various diameters, the combination of which enables the holding time to be varied. For instance four tubes corresponding to holding times 0.5, 1, 2 and 4 minutes allow the holding time to be varied from 0.5 to 7.5 minutes in half minute intervals.

2.2.3.

Product distribution system

It is very important that the product to be evaporated is distributed evenly into all the tubes in the calandria to get a good coverage. The distribution system is therefore given special attention when designing an evaporator. In principle there are two different systems:

  • Dynamic distribution system.
  • Static distribution system.
2.2.3.1.

Dynamic distribution system

In the dynamic distribution system, the necessary kinetic energy for distribution is obtained by a pressure drop of the product over a full-cone nozzle. As the product is superheated in relation to the pressure inside the tubes, flash vapour will instantaneously be formed. The mixture of product and vapour is sprayed into the inlet of the tubes thus being covered by product. This system is very inflexible as to capacity variations and not used in dairy evaporators designed for various milk products with different solids content.

2.2.3.2.

Static distribution system

In the static distribution system the incoming superheated product is first separated in flash vapour and product. The product enters a distributor plate placed inside an open cone, as the product enters the calandria. The cone is placed above a distributor bowl with a number of holes. Here a certain level of product is maintained. The product flows through the holes in the plate by gravity. Each hole is placed just above the area between the tubes. Thus the product flows onto the tube plate and then over the edge down along the surface of each tube. The flash vapour also enters the tubes and pushes the product against the inner surface of the tubes giving it its initial velocity. See Fig. 2.10.

Static distribution system, here shown for one tube only
Fig.2.8. Static distribution system, here shown for one tube only

This distribution system is much more flexible with respect to capacity, as an increase in the level in the distributor bowl - as a result of increased capacity - will make the product flow through the holes at a higher velocity, thus maintaining the level. During CIP of the evaporator and especially the pasteurizing equipment, some jelly lumps of milk protein deposits may cause blocking of the holes in the distributor plate. To avoid this, a self-cleaning hydro cyclone may be installed in the product line between the discharge from the flash vessel of the regenerative pasteurizer and the inlet to the first calandria. See Fig. 2.11.

Self-cleaning hydrocyclone installed between the discharge of the flash vessel and the inlet to the first calandria
Fig.2.9. Self-cleaning hydrocyclone installed between the discharge of the flash vessel and the inlet to the first calandria
2.2.4.

Calandria(s) with boiling tubes

The liquid to be evaporated is evenly distributed on the inner surface of the tubes. The liquid will flow downwards forming a thin film, from which the boiling/evaporation will take place because of the heat applied by the steam. The steam will condense and flow downwards on the outer surface of the tube. A number of tubes are built together side by side. At each end the tubes are fixed to tube plates, and finally the tube bundle is enclosed by a jacket, see Fig. 2.12. The steam is introduced through the jacket. The space between the tubes is thus forming the heating section. The inner side of the tubes is called the boiling section. Together they form the so-called calandria. The concentrated liquid and the vapour leave the calandria at the bottom part, from where the main proportion of the concentrated liquid is discharged. The remaining part enters the subsequent separator tangentially together with the vapour. The separated concentrate is discharged (usually by means of the same pump as for the major part of the concentrate from the calandria), and the vapour leaves the separator from the top. The heating steam, which condenses on the outer surface of the tubes, is collected as condensate at the bottom part of the heating section, from where it is discharged by means of a pump.

Calandria with boiling tubes
Fig.2.10. Calandria with boiling tubes

In order to understand the heat and mass transfer, the basis for the evaporation, it is necessary to define various specific quantities.

Feed (A) means a liquid product supplied to the evaporator to be evaporated (B) and concentrate (C) is the resulting product. And thus:

[2,1]

The evaporation ratio (e) is a measure for the evaporation intensity and can be defined either as the ratio between the amount of feed and concentrate or the ratio between the total solids (TS) percentage in the concentrate and in the feed.

[2,2]

If the concentrations or the evaporation ratio are known the quantities A, B or C can be calculated, if one of them is known.

Given quantity To be found Formula
Quantity to be treated A B B = A * (e - 1) / e
C C = A / e
Evaporated quantity B A A = B *  e / (e - 1)
C C = B * 1 / (e - 1)
Concentrate quantity C A A = C * e
B B = C * (e - 1)
Where:
A: feed in kg/h
B: evaporation in kg/h
C: concentrate in kg/h
e: evaporation ratio
Table. 2.4. Quantities A, B or C calculation

Since milk, due to the protein content, is a heat-sensitive product, evaporation (i.e. boiling) at 100°C will result in denaturation of these proteins to such an extent that the final product is considered unfit for consumption. The boiling section is therefore operated under vacuum, which means that the boiling/evaporation takes place at a lower temperature than that corresponding to the normal atmospheric pressure. The vacuum is created by a vacuum pump prior to start-up of the evaporator and is maintained by condensing the vapour by means of cooling water. A vacuum pump or similar is used to evacuate incondensable gases from the milk.

At 100°C the evaporation enthalpy of water is 539 Kcal/kg and at 60°C it is 564 Kcal/kg. As the milk has to be heated from e.g. 6°C to the boiling point, and as energy, approx. 20 Kcal/ kg, is required for maintaining a vacuum corresponding to a boiling point of 60°C, we get the following energy consumption figures, provided we estimate the heat loss to be 2%. Corresponding to about 1.1 kg of steam/kg of evaporated water.

Boiling temperature °C 100 60
Heating Kcal/kg 94 54
Evaporation Kcal/kg 539 564
Vacuum Kcal/kg - 20
Net energy consumption Kcal/kg 633 638
Heat loss, approx. Kcal/kg 15 15
Total energy consumption Kcal/kg 648 653
Table. 2.5. Energy consumption figures
2.2.5.

Separator

The role of the separator is to separate vapour from the evaporated liquid. Milk evaporators are working exclusively with centrifugal type separators.

2.2.5.1.

Separators with tangential vapour inlet

As the vapours generated from the evaporation are used as heating media in the “next” calandria, any product must be separated, since it would otherwise contaminate the condensate and further represent a loss.

The majority of the concentrate is discharged from the bottom of the calandria below the tube bundle. Due to the high vapour velocity some of the concentrate will be carried along with the vapour as small droplets. The separation is done in a separator with tangential vapour inlet; see Fig. 2.13., connected to the calandria below the tubes.

Special care is taken to design the separator to avoid product carry-over at lowest possible pressure drop, as a drop in the pressure is equal to drop in heating enthalpy in the following calandria with an all-over drop in the efficiency as a result.

Separator with tangential vapour inlet
Fig.2.11. Separator with tangential vapour inlet
2.2.5.2.

Wrap-around separator

To reduce space requirements a new development has taken place with the design of the Wrap-around separator, see Fig. 2.14. It is integrated into the base of the calandria. It has the same high efficiency as the classical separator with a low pressure drop. It is typically used on big calandrias with MVR compressors connected to the wrap-around separator with a very short vapour duct minimizing the pressure drop. The saving in floor space is typically around 30%.
Wrap-around separator
Fig.2.12. Wrap-around separator
2.2.6.

Vapour recompression systems

2.2.6.1.

Thermal Vapour Recompression – TVR

One way of saving energy is by using a thermo-compressor which will increase the temperature/pressure level of the vapour, i.e. compress the vapour from a lower pressure to a higher pressure by using steam of a higher pressure than that of the vapour. Thermo-compressors operate at very high steam flow velocities and have no moving parts. The construction is simple, the dimensions small, and the costs low. See Fig. 2.15.

Thermo-compressor
Fig.2.13. Thermo-compressor

In the live steam nozzle (1) the pressure of the inflowing steam is converted into velocity. A jet is therefore created which draws in part of the vapour from the separator connected to the calandria. In the diffuser (2) a fast flowing mixture of live steam and vapours is formed, the speed of which is converted into pressure (temperature increase) by deceleration. This mixture can now be used as heating steam for the evaporator. In Fig. 2.16 a flow sheet of a three-effect evaporator with thermo-compressor is shown.

The best efficiency in the thermo-compressor, i.e. the best suction rate, and thereby a good economy, is obtained when the temperature difference (pressure difference) between the boiling section and the heating section is low.

Three-effect evaporator with thermo-compressor
Fig.2.14. Three-effect evaporator with thermo-compressor

Thermo-compressors must be adapted to the operating conditions. But these conditions can vary, be it, for example, that the heat resistance of the heating surfaces increases during operation due to deposits on the heating tubes. The suction rate will then decrease considerably. In evaporators that have to serve various capacities a number of thermo compressors with different characteristics are used. Further, a thermo-compressor, which has been designed for a higher live steam pressure, can draw a larger amount of vapour from the separator than one built for a lower pressure. For simplification we will in the following use an efficiency of 1:2, but new designed thermo-compressors will under certain conditions operate with an efficiency of 1:3.

By adding a thermo-compressor we have then in a three-effect evaporator by means of 1 kg live steam evaporated 5 kg of water, i.e. the saving of steam is as great as that obtained by addition of two effects in multi-effect evaporation. Dividing a given total Δt between the first and last effect in multi-effect evaporators requires an enormous heating surface and consequently an expensive installation.

2.2.6.2.

Mechanical Vapour Recompression - MVR

As an alternative to the thermo-compressor, the mechanical vapour compressor has during the last fifteen years found extensive use in evaporators in the dairy industry. The applied energy for the compressor is usually electricity, but also diesel and gas motors are used. Other processes may require steam at low pressure, and the compressor may be driven by a steam turbine acting as a reducing valve. All determined by local price policy for energy. As a rule of thumb, however, an MVR solution is profitable, if the price/kW < price/kg steam x 3. However, the decision as to which type of compressor to use, is nowadays influenced by the end product quality - the milk powder - and in the MVR evaporator there is a very short residence time, resulting in low viscosity of the concentrate.

MVR Recompressor
Fig.2.15. MVR Recompressor

The mechanical vapour compressor is a fast revolving high pressure fan (~3000 rpm) capable of operating under vacuum. At low boiling temperatures the volume of the vapours is enormous. Consequently, there is a limit as to the lowest temperature levels used in practice. As the energy applied to the compressor is utilized most efficiently by low compression ratios, the obtained temperature/pressure increase is limited. Therefore, a large heat transfer surface is required tending to increase the capital costs of the equipment.

One-effect MVR evaporator
Fig.2.16. One-effect MVR evaporator

As it is essential to operate an MVR unit at a low overall temperature difference between the vapour evolved from the product and the heating medium as a result of the compression, it is a must that the boiling point elevation of the product is kept at a minimum, as this would otherwise even further minimize the temperature difference available for the evaporation. This, too, limits the maximum concentrations aimed at in evaporators of this kind. Fig 2.17., illustrates a one-effect MVR evaporator. The incoming cold milk is first preheated by concentrate then by condensate from the heating section of the calandria followed by a final pasteurization by means of live steam. The vapour is compressed in the MVR unit and used as heating medium, as it releases the latent heat by condensation.

A vacuum pump, together with a small amount of cooling water, maintains the desired vacuum in the system.

As it can be seen no energy leaves the plant in form of warm condensate, and only a minor part via the cooling water (depending upon the pasteurization temperature desired). The MVR evaporator is in this context very often used as pre-condenser of milk products for transport purposes, where the required solids content is in the range of 30-35% and thus the boiling point elevation is limited. With the concentrate leaving the plant at low temperature, this kind of installation is a strong competitor to hyperfiltration.

The vapour is by the MVR fan sucked from the separator and the compressed vapour is desuperheated by spraying water into the outlet of the compressor. The compressed vapour is condensed on the heat exchanger surface in the subsequent calandria, where it is discharged as condensate. Simultaneously, water is evaporated from the milk and separated as vapour in the separator.

The MVR evaporator offers much better capacity flexibility / turn-down capability, as only the RPM on the fan needs to be adjusted.

Combined MVR/TVR evaporator
Fig.2.17. Combined MVR/TVR evaporator

Usually, the MVR evaporator is combined with a TVR unit, if solids contents suited for a spray drying plant are aimed at, see Fig. 2.18. The steam consumption per kg evaporated water is of course less than in a multi-effect evaporator, but if the MVR unit is driven by an electric motor, the electrical energy consumption will be bigger. As only very little cooling water is required, this combination offers a very attractive solution, however, a higher investment should be anticipated. Under special energy price conditions it is advantageous to replace the TVR unit with an additional MVR unit to compress the vapour over the last effect, see Fig. 2.19. It is therefore recommendable that each case be studied carefully taking local conditions such as steam, electricity and cooling water prices into consideration.

Evaporator with 2 MVR fans
Fig.2.18. Evaporator with 2 MVR fans
5-effect TVR 7-effect TVR 1-effect MVR /
2-effect TVR
PRODUCT Skim milk Skim milk Skim milk
Capacity, kg/h 15,000 15,000 15,000
Solids in/out, % 9/50 9/50 9/50
Evaporation, kg/h 12,300 12,300 12,300
Pasteurization temp., °C 90 90 90
Holding time, sec. 30 30 30
Steam consumption, kg/h 1,610 1,190 375
Steam pressure, bar 10 10 10
Condensate, kg/h 13,400 13,400 12,800
Condensate temp., °C 54 51 22
Power consumption
- MVR, kW
- Motors, kW
-
75
-
75
150
50
Cooling water cons., m3/h 32 3.5 2 *
Cooling water temp in/out, °C 28/35 28/35 12/50
Power cons. cool. tower, kW 10 2.5 -
Residence time, min. 12 18 6
Table. 2.6. Comparison of energy consumption in different evaporators
2.2.7.

Condensation equipment

In multi-effect evaporators - be it a TVR or MVR plant or combinations hereof - any “subsequent” calandria – operated at a lower boiling temperature - is used as condenser for the ”warmer” vapour coming from the separator of the previous calandria. Water is used as cooling medium in a condenser to condense the vapour from the last calandrias separator either indirectly (shell and tube surface condenser) or directly (spray mixing condenser). Surface condensers are more expensive and need 10-15% more water. The type of condenser has no effect on the performance of the evaporator. In plants processing products containing volatile acids, surface condensers are preferred to avoid contamination of cooling water by acid.

2.2.7.1.

Mixing condenser

In a mixing condenser numerous nozzles and plates are installed in order to get a good mixing of the vapour and the cooling water, see Fig. 2.20. The water and condensed vapour are removed at the bottom. As there will be the same vacuum in the mixing condenser as in the last effect, the pump to remove the water and condensate should be capable of discharging from this vacuum.

Mixing condenser
Fig.2.19. Mixing condenser

Another solution is to place the mixing condenser barometrically high, i.e. about 11 meter above the pump. The water will run into a well from where it is pumped away, either to a cooling tower or to a natural water reservoir.

The advantage of the mixing condenser is low investment costs and lower cooling water consumption. The disadvantage is that condensate is mixed with the cooling water which may have the effect that the cooling tower is contaminated. Since there is an open connection between the product in the last effect and the, possibly contaminated, cooling water they represent a bacteriological hazard and thus should be avoided.

2.2.7.2.

Surface condenser

The surface condenser is working and built according to the same principle as an ordinary straight tube heat exchanger. The advantage of a surface condenser is that cooling water and vapour condensate remain separate. As only the vapour condensate has to be pumped out of the vacuum, it has never been considered to place it barometrically as is the case for the mixing condenser. Surface condensers should always be used in plants where acid products such as acid whey are evaporated in order to separate acid vapour condensate from the cooling water.

2.2.8.

Vacuum equipment

The vacuum in the last effect of the evaporator is a function of the power of the vacuum equipment and the amount of cooling water and the temperature to maintain the vacuum once created. The vacuum in the first and intermediate effects is created by the subsequent calandria acting as a condenser for the vapours from the previous effect. Any change in the evaporation rate in one effect, due to fouling for example (decrease of K factor), therefore means that less vapour is condensed. This results in increased boiling temperature in the previous effect, the Δt decreases and so does the overall evaporation capacity. Each effect is connected to the condenser to ensure the de-aeration of incondensable air and gas.

Saturated steam which is used as heating steam contains also considerable amount of air and other non-condensable gases. So does the product to be concentrated. It amounts usually to about 0.5% and increases especially in multi-effect evaporators up to 1%. The noncondensable gases reduce the heat transfer coefficient considerably. Therefore it is important to provide effective degassing of the calandrias. The heating steam may contain some milk solids creating deposits on the steam side of the tubes, due to incomplete separation of entrained droplets from vapour in the separator.

This also reduces the heat transfer. To create and maintain (due to the incondensable gases and leaks) the vacuum in the evaporator, two types of pumps are used:

  • Vacuum pump
  • Steam jet vacuum unit.
2.2.8.1.

Vacuum pump

Vacuum pumps such as the water-ring pump are used. Normally two units are installed; they are both used for quick start-up of the plant, while only one is used during production to maintain the vacuum. Only stainless steel material should be considered, as bronze - even it is cheaper - has a very short lifetime, especially if the plant has to process whey, due to corrosion.

2.2.8.2.

Steam jet vacuum unit

The steam jet vacuum unit is in principle designed like the thermo-compressor discussed earlier. This system has a low maintenance cost, but the additional steam requirement should be taken into consideration.

2.2.9.

Flash coolers

Flash cooler
Fig.2.20. Flash cooler

Very often the required concentrate temperature is lower than the one obtained from the last effect. The concentrate can naturally be passed over a cooling surface, such as a plate heat exchanger, but as the viscosity is high at this stage, it is not recommended. Instead, flash coolers are used. The system is simple and consists only of a vacuum chamber (vacuum created by steam jet vacuum units) into which the concentrate is sprayed. See Fig. 2.21. Depending upon the vacuum the concentrate will flash and due to the evaporation a cooling will take place simultaneously resulting in a slight increase of the solids content.

The flash cooler is mainly used for whey, where it is especially advantageous, as the cooling takes place instantaneously, thereby avoiding problems with crystallization of the lactose, which would create blockages between the plates.

2.2.10.

Sealing water equipment

All falling-film evaporators have transport pumps for passing the milk concentrate from one effect to another. The amount of pumps depends on the number of effects, and whether the effects are split or not. As the pumps work under vacuum efficient sealing is necessary to avoid any air leaking making it difficult to maintain the vacuum. This sealing is done with water. Each pump requires about 100- 200 l/h of sealing water of which normally ½-1 l/h enters the milk flow. The sealing water system may be designed, so that each pump is furnished with a small funnel to see if there is any excessive waste of sealing water and - which is more important - if a pump is suddenly using more water than normal, which means that the sealing ring is wearing out.

2.2.11.

Cooling towers

Many factories are placed near lakes, rivers or other natural water reservoirs, and the amount and temperature of cooling water are therefore no problem, provided the increased temperature in the return water is not causing any environmental problems.

However, not all factories have got access to unlimited water supply, and the situation where the cooling water requirement cannot be covered may arise. The problem could be solved by recycling the water, but hot water is not a good cooling medium, so the vacuum in the evaporator would soon disappear. By installing a cooling tower, see photo, this problem is overcome. In the cooling tower the water is cooled (how much depends on local conditions for ambient temperature and wet-bulb temperature) by evaporation, as the water is distributed over a big surface, and a fan ensures the necessary air turbulence. The flow of water goes from the cooling tower to the condenser from where it is pumped back to the cooling tower.

Cooling towers
Fig.2.21. Cooling towers

Due to the evaporation of water in the cooling tower water has naturally to be added, but the amount is low. When a mixing condenser is used the extra water requirement is practically nil, as the condensed vapours are mixed with the water. It is recommended at certain intervals to renew the recycled water completely to avoid excessive bacteria and algae growth.

2.3.

Evaporator design parameters

2.3.1.

Determination of heating surface

Saturated steam is used exclusively as the heating medium for evaporation of milk. The essential aspect to consider when designing a milk evaporator is to estimate the heating surface. Generally it must be large enough to secure the required heat transfer but not excessively large to keep still good coverage of the over-all tube surface by the evaporating liquid. It is calculated by following equation:

[2,3]

Where:

  • A is the heating surface in m²,
  • Q is the amount of heat required for given duty in kcal/s or J/s or W,
  • ts is the tube wall temperature on the steam side in °C,
  • tm is the tube wall temperature on the milk side in °C,
  • K is the heat transfer coefficient in kcal/m² / °C / s or J/m² / °C / s or W/m² / °C

The amount of heat required for evaporation Q is calculated from the required duty, i.e. the amount of water to be evaporated W (kg/h) and the specific heat of evaporation I under given conditions (vacuum and temperature):

[2,4]
2.3.2.

Heat transfer coefficient

The heat transfer coefficient is the most critical factor. The numerical values of K are influenced by a number of external factors as well as the properties of the evaporating liquid at any stage of the process (i.e. density, viscosity, surface tension, temperature, boiling point elevation, heat conductivity, specific heat) properties of the heating steam, tube wall material, surface treatment and cleanliness, velocity of the film flow, thickness of the film etc.

The numerical value of the heat transfer coefficient varies between 3000 and 100 W/m²/°C for low viscous liquids and clean surfaces to high viscous liquids and dirty surfaces respectively. Therefore, under continuous operating conditions in a multi-effect evaporator the heat transfer coefficient decreases from stage to stage due to rising viscosity and formation of deposits (mainly calcium phosphates and precipitated proteins) on the heating surfaces. The heat transfer coefficient for skim milk is about 2500 W/m²/°C in the first effect and drops down to below 1000 in the last effect. For whole milk values are about 15% lower.

2.3.3.

Coverage coefficient

Burnt deposits in the tubes occur especially if the tube surfaces are not completely covered due to a low average flow of liquid per tube or to poor distribution.

The increased demand for big multi-effect evaporators requiring bigger heating surface in order to obtain better specific consumption figures, can be met by using more tubes. This would, however, mean that less liquid is getting into each of the tubes, and the produced film becomes too thin. At high solids contents the viscosity will increase, the film will not flow any more, and there will be a risk of burnt deposits. This will result in a concentrate with small jelly lumps, very often discoloured and found in the powder as “scorched particles”, as they will not dissolve when the powder is reconstituted. In extreme cases the tubes block completely and manual cleaning is necessary.

The designer therefore operates with the so-called coverage coefficient defined as:

[2,5]

The coverage problem was some years ago overcome by recirculating part of the feed from the outlet of the calandria to the inlet of same, thus increasing the amount of liquid sufficient to cover all the tubes.

From a technical point of view this is the ideal solution, as it is cheap and simple, but from a product point of view it should not be tolerated, as it means that part of the product is exposed to the high temperature for a long uncontrollable time. This means that the final concentrate will get increased viscosity and possibly protein denaturation, both resulting in a powder with an inferior solubility.

Two calandrias with one separator
Fig.2.22. Two calandrias with one separator

In modern falling-film evaporators, the so-called “singlepass” evaporators, the problem is solved by dividing the effects with low coverage coefficient in two or more separate calandrias with the same boiling temperature and often one combined separator. See Fig. 2.22.

Another method is to split the calandria by dividing it into two or more sections in a “multi-flow” evaporator. The product is pumped to one section, from the outlet of which it is pumped direct to the next section, and so forth. Having passed through the last section it is pumped to the next effect. This system is almost as cheap as the recirculation, but has the advantage of the divided calandria and no circulation is necessary.

The trend today is to manufacture the calandria with longer tubes in order to obtain more heating surface per tube and to combine it with calandrias with two or more “splits” maintaining the coverage coefficient at a safe level. About forty years ago the evaporators were equipped with 3-4 m tubes and operated with a temperature difference of about 15°C, whereas evaporators 15 years ago had tubes with a length of up to 14 m and a temperature difference down to 2°C. Today most new evaporators have tube lengths up to 16 m. The advantage is that less product passes are needed to obtain sufficient coverage, fewer pumps, and reduced residence time. The disadvantage is that there will be an increased pressure drop of the vapour over the longer tubes, and that is on the account of overall evaporation capacity. Tube length up to 18 m has been tried, but the speed of the vapour becomes so high when it leaves the boiling tubes that the concentrate gets “atomized” and ends up in the heating side of the subsequent calandria and is then discharged as condensate with high BOD level.

When designing an evaporator/spray dryer the main product is therefore always selected, and the evaporator calandrias are designed, so that optimal coverage coefficients are ensured, also for the other products.

As mentioned above, the vapour generated from the evaporation, contains all the applied energy (less heat loss). The applied energy can thus be reused if the vapour condenses in a subsequent calandria operated at a lower product boiling pressure. The energy applied to the system can therefore be reduced to 50% if a second calandria is installed and 33% if a third calandria is used and so forth. But the vapour needs to be separated from the evaporated product before reused.

2.3.4.

Boiling temperature

A very important factor for evaporator design is the selection of the boiling temperature throughout the whole evaporator profile. The principle of multi-effect evaporation requires a temperature cascade of steam temperatures and boiling temperatures from stage to stage. Most common is the so-called feed-forward system, in which each subsequent evaporator stage has lower values of both heating and boiling temperature, than the previous stage. Milk is a heat sensitive liquid and thus the maximum permissible boiling temperature in the first effect has an upper limit. Usually this is 66 to 68°C. It is somewhat higher for whole milk than for skim milk. Due to increasing concentration during evaporation the viscosity of the concentrate rises as well. This increase is further supported by the temperature drop and therefore there is also a limit for minimum permissible temperature. Therefore the available working temperature range is about 25-30°C which means that the temperature drop between the individual stages, which depends on number of stages, is in practice 10 to 3°C. The evaporation capacity of an evaporator is:

[2,6]

Where:

  • C = evaporation capacity
  • K = heat transfer coefficient
  • S = heat surface
  • t = temperature difference between the boiling temperature in the first and last effect.

Thus the capacity of an evaporator can be increased by more surface or higher boiling temperature in the first effect. It is not recommended to use higher temperature than 66- 68°C, as discussed above. The thermo-compressor is incorporated between the separator and the shell of the first effect (mono-thermal compression), the separator of the second and the shell of the first (bi-thermal compression), or between the separator of the third and the shell of the first effect (tri-thermal compression). The influence on the steam economy and the investment costs is significant. However, one major drawback in multi-effect evaporators is the long residence time, where the product is exposed to heat. Although it is at low temperature, it will have a negative effect on the viscosity of the concentrate.

2.4.

Evaporation parameters and its influrence on powder properties

2.4.1.

Effect of pasteurization

The temperature obtained from the last preheater is in multi-effect evaporators lower than the boiling temperature in the first effect. Additional preheating is therefore necessary to obtain the minimum required 2-3°C above the boiling temperature of the first effect. A separate preheater heated by live steam, usually via a thermo-compressor, is then used. However, some products may require higher temperatures, but the primary purpose of the heat treatment in an evaporator, apart from bacteriological requirements, is not ”pasteurization”, but obtaining a tool to get functional properties in the final powder. The reasons for the heat treatment are:

  • Bacteriological requirements
  • Functional properties of dried products
  • Heat classified skim milk powders
  • High-heat heat-stable milk powders
  • Keeping quality of whole milk powders
  • Coffee stability of whole milk powders.
2.4.1.1.

Bacteriological requirements

A pasteurization directly before the evaporation will naturally influence the bacteria count in the final powder, and the higher the temperature and the longer the holding the more efficient the killing.

The heat treatment applied should under any circumstances meet or exceed legal requirements.

2.4.1.2.

Functional properties of dried products

2.4.1.2.1.

Heat classified skim milk powders

Skim milk powder is often produced according to a fixed degree of denaturation of the whey proteins and is classified according to the whey protein nitrogen index (mg WPNI/g powder) which expresses the content of undenaturated whey proteins. Different temperature and time combinations have an influence on the index as shown in Fig. 2.23., as well as % denaturation of 􀁈-lactoglobulin in milk in Fig. 2.24.

mg WPNI/g powder as a function of the pasteurization intensitive, a relation between temperature and time
Fig.2.23. mg WPNI/g powder as a function of the pasteurization intensitive, a relation between temperature and time
% Denaturation of b-lactoglobulin
Fig.2.24. % Denaturation of b-lactoglobulin
2.4.1.2.2.

High-Heat Heat-Stable milk powders

This type of powder is used for reconstitution for making evaporated, sterilized milk, especially in the Far East. After reconstitution to 25-27% TS the product has to be sterilized using temperatures of 120°C or higher during 20 min. The heat stability of the recombined product is controlled by the pasteurization temperature/time combination prior to the evaporation and drying. A direct contact heating system gives a better result.

Pasteurization Temperature Interval °C
Indirect °C From 60 to 80
Direct °C From 80 to 110 *
Direct °C From 110 to 125
Holding time in min. 2-4
Table. 2.7.
2.4.1.2.3.

Keeping quality of whole milk powders

When producing whole milk powder one problem is the shelf-life, as the fat easily becomes oxidized, if the powder is not packed using an inert gas. As a lot of powder is shipped in bags, it is not possible to protect the powder effectively, and antioxidants are in most cases not permitted.

Development of free -SH groups as a function of pasteurization temperature
Fig.2.25. Development of free -SH groups as a function of pasteurization temperature

By pasteurizing (direct) the milk prior to the evaporation to 90-95°C and keeping the temperature for ½-1 min., some natural antioxidants will be formed, as -SH groups, originating from the amino acids cystine, cysteine and methionine. They are liberated and will act as antioxidants. Higher pasteurization temperatures will form more -SH groups, but they will react with casein and not be found in free form. See Fig. 2.25. The free -SH groups will at the same time give the milk a cooked flavour, which, however, is liked by many consumers.

2.4.1.2.4.

Coffee stability of whole milk powders

To produce instant whole milk powder with good reconstitution properties in cold water and at the same time with a good “coffee stability” - that is no coagulation should take place when the powder is added to hot coffee as a “whitener”. It is recommended to use a temperature/ time combination to achieve a WPNI of > 3.5 mg/g, which corresponds to approx. 45% denaturation of -lactoglobulin, see further Fig. 2.24.

For further and a more elaborate reading please see chapter 10. Achieving product properties.

The pasteurization can be carried out in different ways, either:

  • Indirect in plate-, spiral- or straight-tube heat exchangers
  • Direct steam injections into the milk or milk into a steam atmosphere.
2.4.2.

Concentrate properties

The concentrate leaving the last effect of the evaporator is liquid. The concentrate may however have different viscosity depending upon the composition, heat sensitivity of the proteins, pre-treatment, temperature and solids content.

Whole milk concentrates are generally less viscous than skim milk concentrates, and as a general rule the viscosity should not exceed 60 and 100 cP, respectively, if the atomization should be optimal. Higher viscosities can of course be handled in the dryer, but not without losing capacity (bad atomization - big droplets) and an inferior product will be the result.

The composition will influence the viscosity, especially on the protein (P) content in relation to the lactose (L) content. When the ratio P:L is high the concentrate will get a high viscosity. This is especially a problem with jersey cows during the whole year, but other breeds tend to give problems during the beginning and/or the end of the lactation period. The ratio P:L can be adjusted by adding lactose. As a general rule it can be concluded that a higher fat and lactose content will give lower viscosity. Higher protein content will give higher viscosity.

When milk is exposed to a high heat treatment, especially in indirect pasteurizing systems, prior to the evaporation, the viscosity of the concentrate will be higher.

The concentrate temperature will naturally have a direct influence on the viscosity and higher temperature means lower viscosity.

The solids content of the concentrate will have a very significant influence on the viscosity, and the higher the concentration the higher the viscosity.

However, the above only states the direct influence of some parameters on the viscosity. One of the main influences on the viscosity is the time, i.e. the viscosity is a function of time, also known as age-thickening. This means that the viscosity will increase if the concentrate is left for some time. The increase is depending on composition, mainly proteins binding to each other, temperature and concentration. The age-thickening is only partly reversible by agitation.

Age-thickening as a function of temperature (skim milk 48.5% solids)
Fig.2.26. Age-thickening as a function of temperature (skim milk 48.5% solids)

A temperature increase will naturally result in a viscosity drop; but as the age-thickening is more pronounced at higher temperatures, the viscosity will soon increase to the same level and further on as the time passes. See Fig. 2.26.

Age-thickening as a function of solids content (skim milk 55°C)
Fig.2.27. Age-thickening as a function of solids content (skim milk 55°C)

The age-thickening will also be influenced by the solids content and will be more pronounced the higher the solids content in the concentrate. See Fig. 2.27. The composition will have same influence on the age-thickening as on the viscosity. If the concentrate should be kept for some length of time, or transported over long distances before further processing, the concentration and temperature should be low. The low temperature will at the same time limit bacterial growth.

Table of contents

  1. 1.Introduction
  2. 2.Evaporation
    1. 2.1. Basic principles
    2. 2.2. Main components of the evaporator
    3. 2.2.1. Heat exchanger for preheating
    4. 2.2.1.1. Spiral-tube preheaters
    5. 2.2.1.2. Straight-tube preheaters
    6. 2.2.1.3. Preheaters to prevent growth of spore forming bacteria
    7. 2.2.1.3.1. Direct contact regenerative preheaters
    8. 2.2.1.3.2. Duplex preheating system
    9. 2.2.1.3.3. Preheating by direct steam injection
    10. 2.2.1.4. Other means to solve presence of spore forming bacteria
    11. 2.2.1.4.1. Mid-run cleaning
    12. 2.2.1.4.2. UHT treatment
    13. 2.2.2. Pasteurizing system including holding
    14. 2.2.2.1. Indirect pasteurization
    15. 2.2.2.2. Direct pasteurization
    16. 2.2.2.3. Holding tubes
    17. 2.2.3. Product distribution system
    18. 2.2.3.1. Dynamic distribution system
    19. 2.2.3.2. Static distribution system
    20. 2.2.4. Calandria(s) with boiling tubes
    21. 2.2.5. Separator
    22. 2.2.5.1. Separators with tangential vapour inlet
    23. 2.2.5.2. Wrap-around separator
    24. 2.2.6. Vapour recompression systems
    25. 2.2.6.1. Thermal Vapour Recompression – TVR
    26. 2.2.6.2. Mechanical Vapour Recompression - MVR
    27. 2.2.7. Condensation equipment
    28. 2.2.7.1. Mixing condenser
    29. 2.2.7.2. Surface condenser
    30. 2.2.8. Vacuum equipment
    31. 2.2.8.1. Vacuum pump
    32. 2.2.8.2. Steam jet vacuum unit
    33. 2.2.9. Flash coolers
    34. 2.2.10. Sealing water equipment
    35. 2.2.11. Cooling towers
    36. 2.3. Evaporator design parameters
    37. 2.3.1. Determination of heating surface
    38. 2.3.2. Heat transfer coefficient
    39. 2.3.3. Coverage coefficient
    40. 2.3.4. Boiling temperature
    41. 2.4. Evaporation parameters and its influrence on powder properties
    42. 2.4.1. Effect of pasteurization
    43. 2.4.1.1. Bacteriological requirements
    44. 2.4.1.2. Functional properties of dried products
    45. 2.4.1.2.1. Heat classified skim milk powders
    46. 2.4.1.2.2. High-Heat Heat-Stable milk powders
    47. 2.4.1.2.3. Keeping quality of whole milk powders
    48. 2.4.1.2.4. Coffee stability of whole milk powders
    49. 2.4.2. Concentrate properties
  3. 3.Fundamentals of spray drying
    1. 3.1. Principle and terms
    2. 3.1.1. Drying air characteristics
    3. 3.1.2. Terms and definitions
    4. 3.1.3. Psychrometric chart
    5. 3.2. Drying of milk droplets
    6. 3.2.1. Particle size distribution
    7. 3.2.2. Mean particle size
    8. 3.2.3. Droplet temperature and rate of drying
    9. 3.2.4. Particle volume and incorporation of air
    10. 3.3. Single-stage drying
    11. 3.4. Two-stage drying
    12. 3.5. Expansion of air bubbles during drying
    13. 3.6. Extended Two-stage drying
    14. 3.7. Fluid bed drying
  4. 4.Components of a spray drying installation
    1. 4.1. Drying chamber
    2. 4.2. Hot air supply system
    3. 4.2.1. Air supply fan
    4. 4.2.2. Air filters
    5. 4.2.3. Air heater
    6. 4.2.3.1. Indirect: Gas / Electricity
    7. 4.2.3.2. Direct heater
    8. 4.2.4. Air dispersers
    9. 4.3. Feed supply system
    10. 4.3.1. Feed tank
    11. 4.3.2. Feed pump
    12. 4.4. Concentrate heater
    13. 4.4.1. Filter
    14. 4.4.2. Homogenizer/High-pressure pump
    15. 4.4.3. Feed line
    16. 4.5. Atomizing device
    17. 4.5.1. Rotary wheel atomizer
    18. 4.5.2. Pressure nozzle atomizer
    19. 4.5.3. Two-fluid nozzle atomizer
    20. 4.6. Powder recovery system
    21. 4.6.1. Cyclone separator
    22. 4.6.2. Bag filter
    23. 4.6.3. Wet scrubber
    24. 4.6.4. Combinations
    25. 4.7. Fines return system
    26. 4.7.1. For wheel atomizer
    27. 4.7.2. For pressure nozzles
    28. 4.8. Powder after-treatment system
    29. 4.8.1. Pneumatic conveying system
    30. 4.8.2. Fluid bed system
    31. 4.8.3. Lecithin treatment system
    32. 4.8.4. Powder sieve
    33. 4.9. Final product conveying, storage and bagging-off system
    34. 4.10. Instrumentation and automation
  5. 5.Types of spray drying installations
    1. 5.1. Single stage systems
    2. 5.1.1. Spray dryers without any after-treatment system
    3. 5.1.2. Spray dryers with pneumatic conveying system
    4. 5.1.3. Spray dryers with cooling bed system
    5. 5.2. Two stage drying systems
    6. 5.2.1. Spray dryers with fluid bed after-drying systems
    7. 5.2.2. TALL FORM DRYER™
    8. 5.2.3. Spray dryers with Integrated Fluid Bed
    9. 5.3. Three stage drying systems
    10. 5.3.1. COMPACT DRYER™ type CDI (GEA Niro)
    11. 5.3.2. Multi Stage Dryer MSD™ type
    12. 5.3.3. Spray drying plant with Integrated Filters and Fluid Beds - IFD™
    13. 5.3.4. Multi Stage Dryer MSD™-PF
    14. 5.3.5. FILTERMAT™ (FMD) integrated belt dryer
    15. 5.4. Spray dryer with after-crystallization belt
    16. 5.5. TIXOTHERM™
    17. 5.6. Choosing a spray drying installation
  6. 6.Technical calculations
    1. 6.1. Evaporation and product output
    2. 6.2. Heating of atmospheric air
    3. 6.3. Mixing of two air stream
    4. 6.4. Dry air rate, water vapour rate and air density
    5. 6.5. Air velocity in ducts
    6. 6.6. Air flow measurements
    7. 6.7. Barometric distribution law
    8. 6.8. The heat balance of a spray dryer
  7. 7.Principles of industrial production
    1. 7.1. Commissioning of a new plant
    2. 7.2. Causes for trouble-shooting
    3. 7.3. Production documentation
    4. 7.3.1. Production log sheets
    5. 7.3.2. General maintenance log book
    6. 7.3.3. Product quality specification
    7. 7.3.4. Operational parameter specification
    8. 7.4. Product quality control
    9. 7.4.1. Process quality control
    10. 7.4.2. Final quality control
  8. 8.Dried milk products
    1. 8.1. Regular milk powders
    2. 8.1.1. Regular skim milk powder
    3. 8.1.2. Regular whole milk powder
    4. 8.1.3. Whole milk powder with high free fat content
    5. 8.1.4. Butter milk powder
    6. 8.1.4.1. Sweet butter milk powder
    7. 8.1.4.2. Acid butter milk powder
    8. 8.1.5. Fat filled milk powder
    9. 8.2. Agglomerated milk powders
    10. 8.2.1. Agglomerated skim milk powder
    11. 8.2.2. Agglomerated whole milk powder
    12. 8.2.3. Instant whole milk powder
    13. 8.2.4. Agglomerated fat filled milk powder
    14. 8.2.5. Instant fat filled milk powder
    15. 8.3. Whey and whey related products
    16. 8.3.1. Ordinary sweet whey powder
    17. 8.3.2. Ordinary acid whey powder
    18. 8.3.3. Non-caking sweet whey powder
    19. 8.3.4. Non-caking acid whey powder
    20. 8.3.5. Fat filled whey powder
    21. 8.3.6. Hydrolysed whey powder
    22. 8.3.7. Whey protein powder
    23. 8.3.8. Permeate powders
    24. 8.3.9. Mother liquor
    25. 8.4. Other Dried Milk Products
    26. 8.5. Baby food
    27. 8.6. Caseinate powder
    28. 8.6.1. Coffee whitener
    29. 8.6.2. Cocoa-milk-sugar powder
    30. 8.6.3. Cheese powder
    31. 8.6.4. Butter powder
  9. 9.The composition and properties of milk
    1. 9.1. Raw milk quality
    2. 9.2. Milk composition
    3. 9.3. Components of milk solids
    4. 9.3.1. Milk proteins
    5. 9.3.2. Milk fat
    6. 9.3.3. Milk sugar
    7. 9.3.4. Minerals of milk
    8. 9.4. Physical properties of milk
    9. 9.4.1. Viscosity
    10. 9.4.2. Density
    11. 9.4.3. Boiling point
    12. 9.4.4. Acidity
    13. 9.4.5. Redox potential
    14. 9.4.6. Crystallization of lactose
    15. 9.4.7. Water activity
    16. 9.4.8. Stickiness and glass transition
  10. 10.Achieving product properties
    1. 10.1. Moisture content
    2. 10.2. Insolubility index
    3. 10.3. Bulk density, particle density, occluded air
    4. 10.4. Agglomeration
    5. 10.5. Flowability
    6. 10.6. Free fat content
    7. 10.7. Instant properties
    8. 10.7.1. Wettability
    9. 10.7.2. Dispersibility
    10. 10.7.3. Sludge
    11. 10.7.4. Heat stability
    12. 10.7.5. Slowly dispersible particles
    13. 10.7.6. Hot water test and coffee test
    14. 10.7.7. White Flecks Number (WFN)
    15. 10.8. Hygroscopicity, sticking and caking properties
    16. 10.9. Whey Protein Nitrogen Index (WPNI)
    17. 10.10. Shelf life
  11. 11.Analytical methods
    1. 11.1. Moisture content
    2. 11.1.1. Standard oven drying method (IDF Standard No.26-1964 [32])
    3. 11.1.2. Free moisture
    4. 11.1.3. Total moisture
    5. 11.1.4. Water of crystallization
    6. 11.2. Insolubility index
    7. 11.3. Bulk density
    8. 11.4. Particle density
    9. 11.5. Scorched particles
    10. 11.6. Wettability
    11. 11.7. Dispersibility
    12. 11.8. Other methods for determination of instant properties
    13. 11.8.1. Sludge
    14. 11.8.2. Slowly dispersible particles
    15. 11.8.3. Hot water sediment
    16. 11.8.4. Coffee test
    17. 11.8.5. White flecks number
    18. 11.9. Total fat content
    19. 11.10. Free fat content
    20. 11.11. Particle size distribution
    21. 11.12. Mechanical stability
    22. 11.13. Hygroscopicity
    23. 11.14. Degree of caking
    24. 11.15. Total lactose and α-lactose content
    25. 11.16. Titratable acidity
    26. 11.17. Whey Protein Nitrogen Index (WPNI)
    27. 11.18. Flowability (GEA Niro [31])
    28. 11.19. Lecithin content
    29. 11.20. Analytical methods for milk concentrates
    30. 11.20.1. Total solids
    31. 11.20.2. Insolubility index
    32. 11.20.3. Viscosity
    33. 11.20.4. Degree of crystallization
  12. 12.Troubleshooting operations
    1. 12.1. Lack of capacity
    2. 12.2. Product quality
    3. 12.3. Deposits in the system
    4. 12.4. Fire precaution
    5. 12.5. Principles of good manufacturing practice
    6. 12.6. The use of computer for quality control and trouble-shooting
  13. References
Reference: Schlünder,E.U.:Dissertation Techn.Hochschule Darmstadt D 17, 1962.